Character Entities for XHTML

testing across platforms and browsers*

Author: Murray Altheim
Revised: 6 June 2002
Revision: $Id: NOTE-charents.html,v 1.2 2002/06/06 00:37:31 altheim Exp $ The Ceryle Project

Copyright ©2002 Murray Altheim. All Rights Reserved.


Included are tables displaying the entire set of XHTML character entities. Character entities are short codes used to invoke the display of special characters in Web browsers, such as "ä" for an "ä" character or "€" for the Euro sign "€." Because of differences in computer platform, operating system, browser and available fonts, not all characters considered part of the HTML/XHTML character repertoire have historically been correctly displayed. This has improved somewhat, with most characters now showing up in Netscape. Included with the tables are codes indicating how each character fared on each of three platforms using a recent version of the Netscape browser.

* This document will be modified to show performance of IE sometime in the future.

Status of this Document

This document is intended for review and comment by interested parties. It may be updated, replaced, rendered obsolete by other documents, or removed from circulation at any time. Distribution of this document is unlimited.


 ^ Description

Included is a table displaying the entire set of XHTML character entities. This table was derived from the set of character entities delivered with XHTML 1.0. Performance of this table varies as according to OS, browser, and fonts chosen. The description includes the glyph description, Unicode hex value, ISO or IETF source (when available), and performance codes. Some detailed notes as well as a description of the performance codes found at the end of each character entity description is located in the document Notes.

 ^ XML-compatible ISO Latin 1 Character Entity Set for XHTML

name number glyph    description
nbsp 160 | | no-break space = non-breaking space, U+00A0 ISOnum [123]
iexcl 161 ¡ inverted exclamation mark, U+00A1 ISOnum [123]
cent 162 ¢ cent sign, U+00A2 ISOnum [123]
pound 163 £ pound sign, U+00A3 ISOnum [123]
curren 164 ¤ currency sign, U+00A4 ISOnum [123]
yen 165 ¥ yen sign = yuan sign, U+00A5 ISOnum [123]
brvbar 166 ¦ broken bar = broken vertical bar, U+00A6 ISOnum [123]
sect 167 § section sign, U+00A7 ISOnum [123]
uml 168 ¨ diaeresis = spacing diaeresis, U+00A8 ISOdia [123]
copy 169 © copyright sign, U+00A9 ISOnum [123]
ordf 170 ª feminine ordinal indicator, U+00AA ISOnum [123]
laquo 171 « left-pointing double angle quotation mark = left pointing guillemet, U+00AB ISOnum [123]
not 172 ¬ not sign, U+00AC ISOnum [123]
shy 173 |­| soft hyphen = discretionary hyphen, U+00AD ISOnum [?23]
reg 174 ® registered sign = registered trade mark sign, U+00AE ISOnum [123]
macr 175 ¯ macron = spacing macron = overline = APL overbar, U+00AF ISOdia [123]
deg 176 ° degree sign, U+00B0 ISOnum [123]
plusmn 177 ± plus-minus sign = plus-or-minus sign, U+00B1 ISOnum [123]
sup2 178 ² superscript two = superscript digit two = squared, U+00B2 ISOnum [123]
sup3 179 ³ superscript three = superscript digit three = cubed, U+00B3 ISOnum [123]
acute 180 ´ acute accent = spacing acute, U+00B4 ISOdia [123]
micro 181 µ micro sign, U+00B5 ISOnum [123]
para 182 pilcrow sign = paragraph sign, U+00B6 ISOnum [123]
middot 183 · middle dot = Georgian comma = Greek middle dot, U+00B7 ISOnum [123]
cedil 184 ¸ cedilla = spacing cedilla, U+00B8 ISOdia [123]
sup1 185 ¹ superscript one = superscript digit one, U+00B9 ISOnum [123]
ordm 186 º masculine ordinal indicator, U+00BA ISOnum [123]
raquo 187 » right-pointing double angle quotation mark = right pointing guillemet, U+00BB ISOnum [123]
frac14 188 ¼ vulgar fraction one quarter = fraction one quarter, U+00BC ISOnum [123]
frac12 189 ½ vulgar fraction one half = fraction one half, U+00BD ISOnum [123]
frac34 190 ¾ vulgar fraction three quarters = fraction three quarters, U+00BE ISOnum [123]
iquest 191 ¿ inverted question mark = turned question mark, U+00BF ISOnum [123]
Agrave 192 À latin capital A with grave = latin capital A grave, U+00C0 ISOlat1 [123]
Aacute 193 Á latin capital A with acute, U+00C1 ISOlat1 [123]
Acirc 194 Â latin capital A with circumflex, U+00C2 ISOlat1 [123]
Atilde 195 Ã latin capital A with tilde, U+00C3 ISOlat1 [123]
Auml 196 Ä latin capital A with diaeresis, U+00C4 ISOlat1 [123]
Aring 197 Å latin capital A with ring above = latin capital A ring, U+00C5 ISOlat1 [123]
AElig 198 Æ latin capital AE = latin capital ligature AE, U+00C6 ISOlat1 [123]
Ccedil 199 Ç latin capital C with cedilla, U+00C7 ISOlat1 [123]
Egrave 200 È latin capital E with grave, U+00C8 ISOlat1 [123]
Eacute 201 É latin capital E with acute, U+00C9 ISOlat1 [123]
Ecirc 202 Ê latin capital E with circumflex, U+00CA ISOlat1 [123]
Euml 203 Ë latin capital E with diaeresis, U+00CB ISOlat1 [123]
Igrave 204 Ì latin capital I with grave, U+00CC ISOlat1 [123]
Iacute 205 Í latin capital I with acute, U+00CD ISOlat1 [123]
name number glyph    description
Icirc 206 Î latin capital I with circumflex, U+00CE ISOlat1 [123]
Iuml 207 Ï latin capital I with diaeresis, U+00CF ISOlat1 [123]
ETH 208 Ð latin capital ETH, U+00D0 ISOlat1 [123]
Ntilde 209 Ñ latin capital N with tilde, U+00D1 ISOlat1 [123]
Ograve 210 Ò latin capital O with grave, U+00D2 ISOlat1 [123]
Oacute 211 Ó latin capital O with acute, U+00D3 ISOlat1 [123]
Ocirc 212 Ô latin capital O with circumflex, U+00D4 ISOlat1 [123]
Otilde 213 Õ latin capital O with tilde, U+00D5 ISOlat1 [123]
Ouml 214 Ö latin capital O with diaeresis, U+00D6 ISOlat1 [123]
times 215 × multiplication sign, U+00D7 ISOnum [123]
Oslash 216 Ø latin capital O with stroke = latin capital O slash, U+00D8 ISOlat1 [123]
Ugrave 217 Ù latin capital U with grave, U+00D9 ISOlat1 [123]
Uacute 218 Ú latin capital U with acute, U+00DA ISOlat1 [123]
Ucirc 219 Û latin capital U with circumflex, U+00DB ISOlat1 [123]
Uuml 220 Ü latin capital U with diaeresis, U+00DC ISOlat1 [123]
Yacute 221 Ý latin capital Y with acute, U+00DD ISOlat1 [123]
THORN 222 Þ latin capital THORN, U+00DE ISOlat1 [123]
szlig 223 ß latin small sharp s = ess-zed, U+00DF ISOlat1 [123]
agrave 224 à latin small a with grave = latin small a grave, U+00E0 ISOlat1 [123]
aacute 225 á latin small a with acute, U+00E1 ISOlat1 [123]
acirc 226 â latin small a with circumflex, U+00E2 ISOlat1 [123]
atilde 227 ã latin small a with tilde, U+00E3 ISOlat1 [123]
auml 228 ä latin small a with diaeresis, U+00E4 ISOlat1 [123]
aring 229 å latin small a with ring above = latin small a ring, U+00E5 ISOlat1 [123]
aelig 230 æ latin small ae = latin small ligature ae, U+00E6 ISOlat1 [123]
ccedil 231 ç latin small c with cedilla, U+00E7 ISOlat1 [123]
egrave 232 è latin small e with grave, U+00E8 ISOlat1 [123]
eacute 233 é latin small e with acute, U+00E9 ISOlat1 [123]
ecirc 234 ê latin small e with circumflex, U+00EA ISOlat1 [123]
euml 235 ë latin small e with diaeresis, U+00EB ISOlat1 [123]
igrave 236 ì latin small i with grave, U+00EC ISOlat1 [123]
iacute 237 í latin small i with acute, U+00ED ISOlat1 [123]
icirc 238 î latin small i with circumflex, U+00EE ISOlat1 [123]
iuml 239 ï latin small i with diaeresis, U+00EF ISOlat1 [123]
eth 240 ð latin small eth, U+00F0 ISOlat1 [123]
ntilde 241 ñ latin small n with tilde, U+00F1 ISOlat1 [123]
ograve 242 ò latin small o with grave, U+00F2 ISOlat1 [123]
oacute 243 ó latin small o with acute, U+00F3 ISOlat1 [123]
ocirc 244 ô latin small o with circumflex, U+00F4 ISOlat1 [123]
otilde 245 õ latin small o with tilde, U+00F5 ISOlat1 [123]
ouml 246 ö latin small o with diaeresis, U+00F6 ISOlat1 [123]
divide 247 ÷ division sign, U+00F7 ISOnum [123]
oslash 248 ø latin small o with stroke, = latin small o slash, U+00F8 ISOlat1 [123]
ugrave 249 ù latin small u with grave, U+00F9 ISOlat1 [123]
uacute 250 ú latin small u with acute, U+00FA ISOlat1 [123]
ucirc 251 û latin small u with circumflex, U+00FB ISOlat1 [123]
uuml 252 ü latin small u with diaeresis, U+00FC ISOlat1 [123]
yacute 253 ý latin small y with acute, U+00FD ISOlat1 [123]
thorn 254 þ latin small thorn with, U+00FE ISOlat1 [123]
yuml 255 ÿ latin small y with diaeresis, U+00FF ISOlat1 [123]

 ^ XML-compatible ISO Special Character Entity Set for XHTML

name number glyph    description
lt 60 < less-than sign, U+003C ISOnum [123]
gt 62 > greater-than sign, U+003E ISOnum [123]
amp 38 & ampersand, U+0026 ISOnum [123]
apos 39 ' apostrophe, U+0027 ISOnum [123]
quot 34 " quotation mark = APL quote, U+0022 ISOnum [123]
OElig 338 Πlatin capital ligature OE, U+0152 ISOlat2 [123]
oelig 339 œ latin small ligature oe, U+0153 ISOlat2 [123]
Scaron 352 Š latin capital letter S with caron, U+0160 ISOlat2 [1c3]
scaron 353 š latin small letter s with caron, U+0161 ISOlat2 [1c3]
Yuml 376 Ÿ latin capital letter Y with diaeresis, U+0178 ISOlat2 [13]
circ 710 ˆ modifier letter circumflex accent, U+02C6 ISOpub [13]
tilde 732 ˜ small tilde, U+02DC ISOdia [13]
ensp 8194 || en space, U+2002 ISOpub [d3]
emsp 8195 || em space, U+2003 ISOpub [d3]
thinsp 8201 || thin space, U+2009 ISOpub [d3]
zwnj 8204 || zero width non-joiner, U+200C NEW RFC 2070 [?]
zwj 8205 || zero width joiner, U+200D NEW RFC 2070 [?]
name number glyph    description
lrm 8206 left-to-right mark, U+200E NEW RFC 2070 [1]
rlm 8207 right-to-left mark, U+200F NEW RFC 2070 [1]
ndash 8211 en dash, U+2013 ISOpub [123]
mdash 8212 em dash, U+2014 ISOpub [123]
lsquo 8216 left single quotation mark, U+2018 ISOnum [123]
rsquo 8217 right single quotation mark, U+2019 ISOnum [123]
sbquo 8218 single low-9 quotation mark, U+201A NEW [123]
ldquo 8220 left double quotation mark, U+201C ISOnum [123]
rdquo 8221 right double quotation mark, U+201D ISOnum [123]
bdquo 8222 double low-9 quotation mark, U+201E NEW [123]
dagger 8224 dagger, U+2020 ISOpub [a23]
Dagger 8225 double dagger, U+2021 ISOpub [a23]
permil 8240 per mille sign, U+2030 ISOtech [123]
lsaquo 8249 single left-pointing angle quotation mark, U+2039 ISO proposed [123]
rsaquo 8250 single right-pointing angle quotation mark, U+203A ISO proposed [123]
euro 8364 euro sign, U+20AC NEW [123]

 ^ XML-Compatible ISO Math, Greek and Symbolic Character Entity Set for XHTML

name number glyph    description
fnof 402 ƒ latin small f with hook = function = florin, U+0192 ISOtech [b23]
Alpha 913 Α greek capital letter alpha, U+0391 [23]
Beta 914 Β greek capital letter beta, U+0392 [23]
Gamma 915 Γ greek capital letter gamma, U+0393 ISOgrk3 [23]
Delta 916 Δ greek capital letter delta, U+0394 ISOgrk3 [23]
Epsilon 917 Ε greek capital letter epsilon, U+0395 [23]
Zeta 918 Ζ greek capital letter zeta, U+0396 [23]
Eta 919 Η greek capital letter eta, U+0397 [23]
Theta 920 Θ greek capital letter theta, U+0398 ISOgrk3 [23]
Iota 921 Ι greek capital letter iota, U+0399 [23]
Kappa 922 Κ greek capital letter kappa, U+039A [23]
Lambda 923 Λ greek capital letter lambda, U+039B ISOgrk3 [23]
Mu 924 Μ greek capital letter mu, U+039C [23]
Nu 925 Ν greek capital letter nu, U+039D [23]
Xi 926 Ξ greek capital letter xi, U+039E ISOgrk3 [23]
Omicron 927 Ο greek capital letter omicron, U+039F [23]
Pi 928 Π greek capital letter pi, U+03A0 ISOgrk3 [23]
Rho 929 Ρ greek capital letter rho, U+03A1 [23]
Sigma 931 Σ greek capital letter sigma, U+03A3 ISOgrk3 [23]
Tau 932 Τ greek capital letter tau, U+03A4 [23]
Upsilon 933 Υ greek capital letter upsilon, U+03A5 ISOgrk3 [23]
Phi 934 Φ greek capital letter phi, U+03A6 ISOgrk3 [23]
Chi 935 Χ greek capital letter chi, U+03A7 [23]
Psi 936 Ψ greek capital letter psi, U+03A8 ISOgrk3 [23]
Omega 937 Ω greek capital letter omega, U+03A9 ISOgrk3 [23]
alpha 945 α greek small letter alpha, U+03B1 ISOgrk3 [23]
beta 946 β greek small letter beta, U+03B2 ISOgrk3 [23]
gamma 947 γ greek small letter gamma, U+03B3 ISOgrk3 [23]
delta 948 δ greek small letter delta, U+03B4 ISOgrk3 [23]
epsilon 949 ε greek small letter epsilon, U+03B5 ISOgrk3 [23]
zeta 950 ζ greek small letter zeta, U+03B6 ISOgrk3 [23]
eta 951 η greek small letter eta, U+03B7 ISOgrk3 [23]
theta 952 θ greek small letter theta, U+03B8 ISOgrk3 [23]
iota 953 ι greek small letter iota, U+03B9 ISOgrk3 [23]
kappa 954 κ greek small letter kappa, U+03BA ISOgrk3 [23]
lambda 955 λ greek small letter lambda, U+03BB ISOgrk3 [23]
mu 956 μ greek small letter mu, U+03BC ISOgrk3 [23]
nu 957 ν greek small letter nu, U+03BD ISOgrk3 [23]
xi 958 ξ greek small letter xi, U+03BE ISOgrk3 [23]
omicron 959 ο greek small letter omicron, U+03BF NEW [23]
pi 960 π greek small letter pi, U+03C0 ISOgrk3 [123]
rho 961 ρ greek small letter rho, U+03C1 ISOgrk3 [23]
sigmaf 962 ς greek small letter final sigma, U+03C2 ISOgrk3 [3]
sigma 963 σ greek small letter sigma, U+03C3 ISOgrk3 [23]
tau 964 τ greek small letter tau, U+03C4 ISOgrk3 [23]
upsilon 965 υ greek small letter upsilon, U+03C5 ISOgrk3 [23]
phi 966 φ greek small letter phi, U+03C6 ISOgrk3 [23]
chi 967 χ greek small letter chi, U+03C7 ISOgrk3 [23]
psi 968 ψ greek small letter psi, U+03C8 ISOgrk3 [23]
omega 969 ω greek small letter omega, U+03C9 ISOgrk3 [23]
thetasym 977 ϑ greek small letter theta symbol, U+03D1 NEW [13]
upsih 978 ϒ greek upsilon with hook symbol, U+03D2 NEW [13]
piv 982 ϖ greek pi symbol, U+03D6 ISOgrk3 [13]
bull 8226 bullet = black small circle, U+2022 ISOpub [123]
hellip 8230 horizontal ellipsis = three dot leader, U+2026 ISOpub [123]
prime 8242 prime = minutes = feet, U+2032 ISOtech [123]
Prime 8243 double prime = seconds = inches, U+2033 ISOtech [123]
oline 8254 overline = spacing overscore, U+203E NEW [123]
frasl 8260 fraction slash, U+2044 NEW [123]
weierp 8472 script capital P = power set = Weierstrass p, U+2118 ISOamso [123]
image 8465 blackletter capital I = imaginary part, U+2111 ISOamso [1e3]
real 8476 blackletter capital R = real part symbol, U+211C ISOamso [1e3]
name number glyph    description
trade 8482 trade mark sign, U+2122 ISOnum [23]
alefsym 8501 alef symbol = first transfinite cardinal, U+2135 NEW [1f3]
larr 8592 leftwards arrow, U+2190 ISOnum [123]
uarr 8593 upwards arrow, U+2191 ISOnum [123]
rarr 8594 rightwards arrow, U+2192 ISOnum [123]
darr 8595 downwards arrow, U+2193 ISOnum [123]
harr 8596 left right arrow, U+2194 ISOamsa [123]
crarr 8629 downwards arrow with corner leftwards = carriage return, U+21B5 NEW [123]
lArr 8656 leftwards double arrow, U+21D0 ISOtech [123]
uArr 8657 upwards double arrow, U+21D1 ISOamsa [123]
rArr 8658 rightwards double arrow, U+21D2 ISOtech [123]
dArr 8659 downwards double arrow, U+21D3 ISOamsa [123]
hArr 8660 left right double arrow, U+21D4 ISOamsa [123]
forall 8704 for all, U+2200 ISOtech [123]
part 8706 partial differential, U+2202 ISOtech [123]
exist 8707 there exists, U+2203 ISOtech [123]
empty 8709 empty set = null set = diameter, U+2205 ISOamso [123]
nabla 8711 nabla = backward difference, U+2207 ISOtech [123]
isin 8712 element of, U+2208 ISOtech [123]
notin 8713 not an element of, U+2209 ISOtech [123]
ni 8715 contains as member, U+220B ISOtech [123]
prod 8719 n-ary product = product sign, U+220F ISOamsb [123]
sum 8721 n-ary sumation, U+2211 ISOamsb [123]
minus 8722 minus sign, U+2212 ISOtech [123]
lowast 8727 asterisk operator, U+2217 ISOtech [123]
radic 8730 square root = radical sign, U+221A ISOtech [123]
prop 8733 proportional to, U+221D ISOtech [123]
infin 8734 infinity, U+221E ISOtech [123]
ang 8736 angle, U+2220 ISOamso [123]
and 8743 logical and = wedge, U+2227 ISOtech [123]
or 8744 logical or = vee, U+2228 ISOtech [123]
cap 8745 intersection = cap, U+2229 ISOtech [123]
cup 8746 union = cup, U+222A ISOtech [123]
int 8747 integral, U+222B ISOtech [123]
there4 8756 therefore, U+2234 ISOtech [123]
sim 8764 tilde operator = varies with = similar to, U+223C ISOtech [123]
cong 8773 approximately equal to, U+2245 ISOtech [123]
asymp 8776 almost equal to = asymptotic to, U+2248 ISOamsr [123]
ne 8800 not equal to, U+2260 ISOtech [123]
equiv 8801 identical to, U+2261 ISOtech [123]
le 8804 less-than or equal to, U+2264 ISOtech [123]
ge 8805 greater-than or equal to, U+2265 ISOtech [123]
sub 8834 subset of, U+2282 ISOtech [123]
sup 8835 superset of, U+2283 ISOtech [123]
nsub 8836 not a subset of, U+2284 ISOamsn [123]
sube 8838 subset of or equal to, U+2286 ISOtech [123]
supe 8839 superset of or equal to, U+2287 ISOtech [123]
oplus 8853 circled plus = direct sum, U+2295 ISOamsb [123]
otimes 8855 circled times = vector product, U+2297 ISOamsb [123]
perp 8869 up tack = orthogonal to = perpendicular, U+22A5 ISOtech [123]
sdot 8901 dot operator, U+22C5 ISOamsb [123]
lceil 8968 left ceiling = apl upstile, U+2308 ISOamsc [123]
rceil 8969 right ceiling, U+2309 ISOamsc [123]
lfloor 8970 left floor = apl downstile, U+230A ISOamsc [123]
rfloor 8971 right floor, U+230B ISOamsc [123]
lang 9001 left-pointing angle bracket = bra, U+2329 ISOtech [123]
rang 9002 right-pointing angle bracket = ket, U+232A ISOtech [123]
loz 9674 lozenge, U+25CA ISOpub [123]
spades 9824 black spade suit, U+2660 ISOpub [123]
clubs 9827 black club suit = shamrock, U+2663 ISOpub [123]
hearts 9829 black heart suit = valentine, U+2665 ISOpub [123]
diams 9830 black diamond suit, U+2666 ISOpub [123]


 ^ Notes

Any measure of whether or not a specific character displays correctly is imperfect at best, and depends upon hardware platform, operating system, operating system version, choice of browser, and user font settings. The indications in this table are as described below, but should not mean to imply support for a particular character entity under other configurations. If a character has been noted to display correctly by the author, its code is noted at the end of the description area within square brackets. Characters that either do not display at all or display as '?' are missing a numeric code. Alphabetic codes are used for specific instances. The codes are below:

 ^ Index of Character Entities by Name

A   Aacute aacute Acirc acirc acute AElig aelig Agrave agrave alefsym Alpha alpha amp and ang apos Aring aring asymp Atilde atilde Auml auml

B:   bdquo Beta beta brvbar bull

C:   cap Ccedil ccedil cedil cent Chi chi circ clubs cong copy crarr cup curren

D:   Dagger dagger dArr darr deg Delta delta diams divide

E:   Eacute eacute Ecirc ecirc Egrave egrave empty emsp ensp Epsilon epsilon equiv Eta eta ETH eth Euml euml euro exist

F-H:   fnof forall frac12 frac14 frac34 frasl Gamma gamma ge gt hArr harr hearts hellip

I:   Iacute iacute Icirc icirc iexcl Igrave igrave image infin int Iota iota iquest isin Iuml iuml

K-L:   Kappa kappa Lambda lambda lang laquo lArr larr lceil ldquo le lfloor lowast loz lrm lsaquo lsquo lt

M:   macr mdash micro middot minus Mu mu

N:   nabla nbsp ndash ne ni not notin nsub Ntilde ntilde Nu nu

O:   Oacute oacute Ocirc ocirc OElig oelig Ograve ograve oline Omega omega Omicron omicron oplus or ordf ordm Oslash oslash Otilde otilde otimes Ouml ouml

P:   para part permil perp Phi phi Pi pi piv plusmn pound Prime prime prod prop Psi psi

Q-R:   quot radic rang raquo rArr rarr rceil rdquo real reg rfloor Rho rho rlm rsaquo rsquo

S:   sbquo Scaron scaron sdot sect shy Sigma sigma sigmaf sim spades sub sube sum sup sup1 sup2 sup3 supe szlig

T:   Tau tau there4 Theta theta thetasym thinsp THORN thorn tilde times trade

U:   Uacute uacute uArr uarr Ucirc ucirc Ugrave ugrave uml upsih Upsilon upsilon Uuml uuml

W-Z:   weierp Xi xi Yacute yacute yen Yuml yuml Zeta zeta zwj zwnj